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Comparison of Several Common Chlorine Disinfectants in Swimming Pool

Trichloroisocyanuric acid TCCA with 90% effective chlorine content, is a kind of high-efficiency, low-toxicity, broad-spectrum and fast disinfectant that is currently promoted internationally. It can effectively and quickly kill all kinds of bacteria, fungi, spores, toadstools, and Vibrio cholera. It has a special effect on killing hepatitis A and hepatitis B virus, and also has a good disinfection effect on sex viruses and HIV. However, it dissolves slowly, and may not keep up with the rate of residual chlorine consumption when the pool load is high, resulting in reduced disinfection capacity. Containing stabilizer gas uric acid, it is stable under ultraviolet light and suitable for disinfection in outdoor swimming pools. But when using in indoor swimming pools, it will cause over-stability problems. At the same time, the use of TCCA disinfectant will inevitably produce harmful chlorinated by-products, which is also a common disadvantage of chlorinated chemicals.

Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate SIDC is a widely used organic hydrogen disinfectant, which has the advantages of high efficiency, broad spectrum, stability, high solubility, and low toxicity. The aqueous solution can be used for spraying and soaking. It can quickly kill viruses, bacteria and their buds, and can effectively prevent hepatitis and other infectious diseases. However, the bactericidal effect is greatly affected by the conditions of use, and it is allergic to the eyes and skin, and has peculiar smell. It can be used as an impact treatment agent. Containing stabilizer cyanuric acid, it is stable under ultraviolet light and is suitable for use in outdoor swimming pools, but it can cause over-stability problems when used in indoor swimming pools.

Calcium hypochlorite CHC, also known as bleaching powder, is the most widely used swimming pool disinfectant. Its active ingredient, hypochlorous acid, can penetrate into cells to oxidize the sulphur hydrogen gene of cell enzymes and destroy cell metabolism. It can be used in water with different water quality conditions. In acidic environment, its bactericidal powder is strong and rapid, and the high concentration CHC disinfectant can kill spores. In addition, easy to operate, relatively stable when stored and less decomposition are also its advantages. However, it will increase the hardness of the pool water. And there will be insoluble matter in the water, which will cause temporary turbidity. Because of itscorrosion and bleaching effect, it is not suitable for metal equipment and colored textiles.

Liquid chlorine with 100% available chlorine has strong bactericidal power and strong ability of continuous sterilization, algae removal and deodorization. The disinfectant is widely used and cheapest. For that, the disinfection efficiency is high and the effect is good. Meanwhile, it won’t be decomposed during storage.

Disadvantages: 

  1. The general dosage is ineffective against viruses, pathogens.
  2. It can’t oxidize general insecticides and other complex compounds.
  3. It is greatly affected by PH value and reacts with some organic substances to produce an unpleasant chlorine odor.
  4. As a disinfectant, the secondary pollution caused by liquid chlorine to the human body and environment is also obvious.
  5. It will reduce the PH value of the poll water, alkali must be added to increase the PH value.
  6. The maintenance cost is high, the toxicity is high and the operation is dangerous. So it is rarely used in swimming pools today.
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